The area of Karachi in Sindh, Pakistan was known to the ancient Greeks by many names: Krokola, where Alexander the Great camped in Sindh to prepare a fleet for Babylonia after his campaign in the Indus valley; ‘Morontobara’ port (probably the modern Manora Island near the Karachi harbor), from where Alexander’s admiral Nearchus sailed for back home; and Barbarikon, a sea port of the Indo-Greek Bactrian kingdom. The Arabs knew it as the port of Debal, from where Muhammad Bin Qasim led his conquering force into Sindh (the western corner of South Asia) in AD 712. According to the British historian Eliot, parts of district of Karachi and the island of Manora constituted the city of Debal.
According to legend, the city started as a fishing settlement, where a fisherwoman, Mai Kolachi, settled and started a family. The village that grew out of this settlement was known as Kolachi-jo-Goth (The Village of Kolachi in Sindhi). When Sindh started trading across the sea with Muscat and the Persian Gulf in the late 18th century, Karachi gained in importance; a small fort was constructed for its protection with a few cannons imported from Muscat. The fort had two main gateways: one facing the sea, known as Kharadar (Brackish Gate) and the other facing the adjoining Lyari River, known as the Meetha Dar (Sweet Gate). The location of these gates corresponds to the present-day city localities of Kharadar (Khārā Dar) and Meethadar (Mīṭhā Dar) respectively.
During the rule of the Mughal administrator of Sindh, Mirza Ghazi Beg the city was well fortified against Portuguese colonial incursions in Sindh. During the reign of the Kalhora Dynasty the present city started life as a fishing settlement when a Sindhi Balochi fisher-woman called Mai Kolachi took up residence and started a family. The city was an integral part of the Talpur dynasty in 1720.
In 1795, Kolachi-jo-Goth passed from the control of the Khan of Kalat to the Talpur rulers of Sindh. The British, venturing and enterprising in South Asia opened a small factory here in September 1799, but it was closed down within a year because of disputes with the ruling Talpurs. However, this village by the mouth of the Indus river had caught the attention of the British East India Company, who, after sending a couple of exploratory missions to the area, conquered the town on February 3, 1839.
A fter sending a couple of exploratory missions to the area, the British East India Company conquered the town on February 3, 1839. The town was later annexed to the British Indian Empire when Sindh was conquered by Charles James Napier in Battle of Miani on February 17, 1843. Karachi was made the capital of Sindh in the 1840s. On Napier’s departure it was added along with the rest of Sindh to the Bombay Presidency, a move that caused considerable resentment among the native Sindhis. The British realized the importance of the city as a military cantonment and as a port for exporting the produce of the Indus River basin, and rapidly developed its harbor for shipping. The foundations of a city municipal government were laid down and infrastructure development was undertaken. New businesses started opening up and the population of the town began rising rapidly.
The arrival of troops of the Kumpany Bahadur in 1839 spawned the foundation of the new section, the military cantonment. The cantonment formed the basis of the ‘white’ city where the Indians were not allowed free access. The ‘white’ town was modeled after English industrial parent-cities where work and residential spaces were separated, as were residential from recreational places.
Karachi was divided into two major poles. The ‘black’ town in the northwest, now enlarged to accommodate the burgeoning Indian mercantile population, comprised the Old Town, Napier Market and Bunder, while the ‘white’ town in the southeast comprised the Staff lines, Frere Hall, Masonic lodge, Sindh Club, Governor House and the Collectors Kutchery [Law Court] located in the Civil Lines Quarter. Saddar bazaar area and Empress Market were used by the ‘white’ population, while the Serai Quarter served the needs of the ‘black’ town.
The village was later annexed to the British Indian Empire when the Sindh was conquered by Charles Napier in 1843. The capital of Sindh was shifted from Hyderabad to Karachi in the 1840s. This led to a turning point in the city’s history. In 1847, on Napier’s departure the entire Sindh was added to the Bombay Presidency. The post of the governor was abolished and that of the Chief Commissioner in Sindh established.
The British realized its importance as a military cantonment and a port for the produce of the Indus basin, and rapidly developed its harbor for shipping. The foundation of a city municipal committee was laid down by the Commissioner in Sind, Bartle Frere and infrastructure development was undertaken. Consequently, new businesses started opening up and the population of the town started rising rapidly. Karachi quickly turned into a city, making true the famous quote by Napier who is known to have said: Would that I could come again to see you in your grandeur!
In 1857, the Indian Mutiny broke out in the subcontinent and the 21st Native Infantry stationed in Karachi declared allegiance to rebels, joining their cause on 10 September 1857. Nevertheless, the British were able to quickly reassert control over Karachi and defeat the uprising. Karachi was known as Khurachee Scinde (i.e. Karachi, Sindh) during the early British colonial rule.
In 1795, the village became a domain of the Balochi Talpur rulers. A small factory was opened by the British in September 1799, but was closed down within a year. In 1864, the first telegraphic message was sent from India to England when a direct telegraph connection was laid between Karachi and London. In 1878, the city was connected to the rest of British India by rail. Public building projects such as Frere Hall (1865) and the Empress Market (1890) were undertaken. In 1876, Muhammad Ali Jinnah, the founder of Pakistan, was born in the city, which by now had become a bustling city with mosques, churches, courthouses, markets, paved streets and a magnificent harbor. By 1899 Karachi had become the largest wheat exporting port in the east. The population of the city was about 105,000 inhabitants by the end of the 19th century, with a cosmopolitan mix of Muslims, Hindus, Europeans, Jews, Parsis, Iranians, Lebanese, and Goans. By the turn of the century, the city faced street congestion, which led to South Asia’s first tramway system being laid down in 1900.
The city remained a small fishing village until the British seized control of the offshore and strategically located island of Manora. Thereafter, authorities of the British Raj embarked on a large-scale modernization of the city in the 19th century with the intention of establishing a major and modern port which could serve as a gateway to Punjab, the western parts of British India, and Afghanistan. Britain’s competition with imperial Russia during the Great Game also heightened the need for a modern port near Central Asia, and so Karachi prospered as a major centre of commerce and industry during the Raj, attracting communities of: Africans, Arabs, Armenians, Catholics from Goa, Jewish, Lebanese, Malays, and Zoroastrians (also known as Parsees) – in addition to the large number of British businessmen and colonial administrators who established the city’s poshest locales, such as Clifton.
British colonialists embarked on a number of public works of sanitation and transportation, such as gravel paved streets, proper drains, street sweepers, and a network of trams and horse-drawn trolleys. Colonial administrators also set up military camps, a European inhabited quarter, and organized marketplaces, of which the Empress Market is most notable. The city’s wealthy elite also endowed the city with a large number of grand edifices, such as the elaborately decorated buildings that house social clubs, known as ‘Gymkhanas.’ Wealthy businessmen also funded the construction of the Jahangir Kothari Parade (a large seaside promenade) and the Frere Hall, in addition to the cinemas, and gambling parlors which dotted the city.
In 1911, when the capital was shifted to Delhi, Karachi became closer to being a gateway to India, and by 1914, Karachi had become the largest grain exporting port of the British Empire. In 1924, an aerodrome was built and Karachi became the main airport of entry into India. An airship mast was also built in Karachi in 1927 as part of the Imperial Airship Communications scheme, which was later abandoned. In 1936, Sindh was separated from the Bombay Presidency and Karachi was made again the capital of the Sindh. By the time the new country of Pakistan was formed in 1947 as British India was gained independence, Karachi had become a bustling metropolitan city with beautiful classical and colonial European styled buildings lining the city’s thoroughfares.
As the movement for independence almost reached its conclusion, the city suffered widespread outbreaks of communal violence between the majority Muslims and the minority Hindus, who were often targeted by the incoming Muslim refugees. In response to the perceived threat of Hindu domination, self preservation of identity, language and culture in combination with Sindhi Muslim resentment towards wealthy Sindhi Hindus, the province of Sindh became the first province of British India to pass the Pakistan Resolution, in favor of the creation of the Pakistani state. The ensuing turmoil of independence leads to the expulsion of most of Karachi’s Hindu community. While many poor low caste Hindus, Christians, and wealthy Zoroastrians (Parsees) remained in the city, Karachi’s native Sindhi Hindu community fled to India and was replaced by Muslim refugees who, in turn, had been uprooted from regions belonging to India.
District Karachi was chosen as the capital city of Pakistan and accommodated a huge influx of migrants and refugees from India to the newly formed country. As a consequence, the demographics of the city also changed drastically. However, it still maintained a great cultural diversity as its new inhabitants arrived from the different parts of the India. In 1958, the capital of Pakistan was shifted from Karachi to Islamabad and Karachi became the capital of Sindh. Large no. of refugees migrated from India and embarked Karachi as the city of lights.
This marked the start of a long period of decline in the city due to settlement of huge crowds of illegal refugees from other parts of the world. The city’s population continued to grow exceeding the capacity of its creaking infrastructure and increased the pressure on the city.
During the 1960s, Karachi was seen as an economic role model around the world. Many countries sought to emulate Pakistan’s economic planning strategy and one of them, South Korea, copied the city’s second “Five-Year Plan” and World Financial Centre in Seoul is designed and modeled after Karachi.
The 1970s saw major labor struggles in Karachi’s industrial estates, (see: Karachi labor unrest of 1972) During General Zia Ul Haq’s Mar0tial Law, Karachi saw relative peace and prosperity,especially during the 3 years of Major General Mahmood Aslam Hayat, as Deputy Martial Law Administrator Karachi from 1977 to 1980.
The 1980s and 90’s also saw an influx of illegal Afghan refugees from the Afghan war into Karachi, and the city now also called, a “city of illegal refugees”. Political tensions between the Indian refugees groups (descendants of migrants from the partition era and in 1960s Economic migration) and other groups also erupted and the city was wracked with political violence. The period from 1992 to 1994 is regarded as the bloodiest period in the history of the city, when the Army commenced its Operation Clean-up against the Mohajir Qaumi Movement.
Since the last couple of years however, most of these tensions have largely been quieted. Karachi continues to be an important financial and industrial centre for the Sindh and handles most of the overseas trade of Pakistan and the Central Asian countries. It accounts for a large portion of the GDP of Sindh, Pakistan and a large chunk of the country’s white collar workers. Karachi’s population has continued to grow and is estimated to have exceeded 10 million people. Currently, Karachi is a melting pot where people from all the different parts of Pakistan, Afghanistan, Bangladesh, Iran and India. The Sindh government is undertaking a massive upgrading of the city’s infrastructure to be the world’s greatest metropolitan cities.
|Altitude||8 meters AMSL|
|Time zone||PST +05:00 ahead of GMT|
|No. of Districts||05|
|No. of Towns||18|
|No. of Union Councils||178|
|City Administrator||Mohammad Hussain Syed|
|Commissioner||Roshan Ali Sheikh|
Karachi is located in southern Pakistan in the north of Arabian Sea. Physically it is mostly comprises flat or rolling plains with hills on the western and northern boundaries of the urban sprawl. Two rivers pass through the city: the Malir River (North east to centre) and the Lyari River (North to south). The Karachi Harbour is a protected bay to the south west of the city. The southern limit of the city is the Arabian Sea and forms a chain of warm water beaches that are rich in natural beauty.
Karachi is located on the coast and as a result has a relatively mild climate. The level of precipitation is low for most of the year. However, due to the city’s proximity to the sea, humidity levels usually remain high throughout the year. The city enjoys mild winters and hot summers. Since summer temperatures are quite high (the end of April through the end of August are approximately 35 to 40 degrees Celsius), the winter months (November through March) are the best time to visit Karachi.
Karachi is home to some of Pakistan’s important cultural institutions. The National Academy of Performing Arts, located in the newly renovated Hindu Gymkhana, offers a two-year diploma course in performing arts that includes classical music and contemporary theatre. The All Pakistan Music Conference, linked to the 45-year-old similar institution in Lahore, has been holding its Annual Music Festival since its inception in 2004. The Festival is now a well-established feature of the city life of Karachi that is attended by more than 3000 citizens of Karachi as well as people from other cities. The National Arts Council (Koocha-e-Saqafat) has musical performances and mushaira (poetry recitations). The Kara Film Festival annually showcases independent Pakistani and international films and documentaries. Karachi is home to many theatre, music and dance performance groups, such as Thespianz Theater, a professional youth-based, non-profit performing arts group, which works non-stop on theater and arts activities in Pakistan. Karachi has many museums that present exhibitions on a regular basis, including the Mohatta Palace and the National Museum of Pakistan. Karachi Expo Centre hosts many regional and international exhibitions.
The everyday lifestyle of Karachi differs substantially from that of other Pakistani cities and towns. The culture of Karachi is characterized by the blending of South Asian, Middle Eastern, Central Asian and Western influences, as well as its status as a major international business centre. After the independence of Pakistan, Karachi received a large number of refugees from all over India, whose influence is now evident in the city’s different sub-cultures. Karachi hosts the largest middle class stratum of the country and is the most liberal city in Pakistan.
Karachi has a rich collection of buildings and structures of varied architectural styles. Many modern high-rise buildings are under construction. The downtown districts of Saddar and Clifton contain a variety of early 20th-century architecture, ranging in style from the neo-classical KPT building to the Sindh High Court Building. During the period of British rule, classical architecture was preferred for monuments of the British Raj. Karachi acquired its first neo-Gothic or Indo-Gothic buildings when Frere Hall, Empress Market and St. Patrick’s Cathedral were completed. The Mock Tudor architectural style was introduced in the Karachi Gymkhana and the Boat Club. Neo-Renaissance architecture was popular in the 19th century and was the language for St. Joseph’s Convent (1870) and the Sind Club (1883). The classical style made a comeback in the late 19th century, as seen in Lady Dufferin Hospital (1898) and the Cantt. Railway Station. While Italianate buildings remained popular, an eclectic blend termed Indo-Saracenic or Anglo-Mughal began to emerge in some locations.
The local mercantile community began acquiring impressive mercantile structures. Zaibunnisa Street in the Saddar area (known as Elphinstone Street in British days) is an example where the mercantile groups adopted the Italianate and Indo-Saracenic style to demonstrate their familiarity with Western culture and their own. The Hindu Gymkhana (1925) and Mohatta Palace are the example of Mughal revival buildings. The Sindh Wildlife Conservation Building, located in Saddar, served as a Freemasonic Lodge until it was taken over by the government. There are talks of it being taken away from this custody and being renovated and the Lodge being preserved with its original woodwork and ornate wooden staircase.
In recent years, a large number of architecturally distinctive, even eccentric, buildings have sprung up throughout Karachi. Notable examples of contemporary architecture include the Pakistan State Oil Headquarters building and the Karachi Financial Towers. The city has numerous examples of modern Islamic architecture, including the Aga Khan University hospital, Masjid e Tooba, Faran Mosque, Bait-ul Mukarram Mosque, Quaid’s Mausoleum, and the Textile Institute of Pakistan. One of the unique cultural elements of Karachi is that the residences, which are two- or three-story townhouses, are built with the front yard protected by a high brick wall. Ibrahim Ismail Chundrigar Road features a range of extremely tall buildings. The most prominent examples include the Habib Bank Plaza, PRC Towers and the MCB Tower which is the tallest skyscraper in Pakistan.
Many more high-rise buildings are under construction, such as Centre Point near Korangi Industrial Area, IT Tower, Sofitel Tower Karachi and Emerald Tower. The Government of Sindh recently approved the construction of two high-density zones, which will host the new city skyline.
Being a cosmopolitan city of Pakistan, Karachi has variety of restaurants from fast food to conventional restaurants and international. The Port Grand Food and Entertainment Complex is the largest food street of Asia. Port Grand project is a 13-acre world-class facility that has been designed and built in collaboration with top international architects/designers who employed the latest technology and building techniques to deliver a state-of-the-art facility. Boat basin is also a very famous food market. Burns Road in Saddar has traditionally been the place to find traditional Pakistani food.
The night life in Karachi is believed to be best among all over Pakistan,Karachi is also known as city of lights and the city which never sleeps,Almost every day entertainment events are held in Karachi ranging for fashion shows, concerts, seminars or even small gigs at local cafe. Karachi has always been proactive in organizing large events but because of the political and economic crisis in the country, activities have recently been slowed down. Karachi continues to host many different cultural and fashion shows. In 2009 a four-day-long fashion show was organized in Karachi’s luxury Marriott hotel. Karachi has many glitzy shopping malls in the Clifton area, Tariq Road, Gulshan-e-Iqbal and Hyderi shopping area, such as Park Towers, The Forum, Dolmen Mall and Millenium Mall. Zamzama Boulevard is known for its designer stores and many cafes. There are many bazaars in Karachi selling different merchandise. The famous bazaars include Bohri Bazaar, Soldier Bazaar, and Urdu Bazaar. Foreign clothes brands and famous Pakistani fashion labels (such as Amir Adnan, Aijazz, Rizwan Beyg, Deepak Perwani, Shayanne Malik, Maria B, Khaadi, Sputnik Footwear, Metro Shoes, English Boot House, Cotton & Cotton, Men’s Store and Junaid Jamshed) are present in shopping districts of the city. The newly built shopping center Port Grand Food and Entertainment Complex is located at Port of Karachi near Native Jetty Bridge.
Cricket is the most popular Sport in Karachi, which is played in many small grounds around the city, as well as on city streets at night and on weekends. Gully cricket is played in the narrow by-lanes of the city. The National Stadium is the city’s only world-class cricket stadium, and is the second largest cricket stadium in Pakistan after the Gaddafi Stadium in Lahore. The inaugural first-class match at the National Stadium was played between Pakistan and India on 26 February 1955 and since then Pakistani national cricket team has won 20 of the 41 Test matches played at the National Stadium. Since then, instability caused by terrorism has mean’t that non-Asian sides have refused to play in Karachi. The first One Day International at the National Stadium was against the West Indies on 21 November 1980, with the match going to the last ball.The national team has been less successful in such limited-overs matches at the ground, including a five year stint between 1996 and 2001, when they failed to win any matches. The city has been host to a number of successful domestic cricket teams including Karachi, Karachi Blues, Karachi Greens, and Karachi Whites. The National Stadium hosted two group matches (Pakistan v. South Africa on 29 February and Pakistan v. England on 3 March), and a quarter-final match (South Africa v. West Indies on 11 March) during the 1996 Cricket World Cup.The city has also hosted seven editions of the National Games of Pakistan, most recently in 2007. Sports like badminton, volleyball and basketball are popular in schools and colleges. Football is especially popular in Lyari Town, which has a large Afro-Balochi community and has always been a football-mad locality in Karachi. The Peoples Football Stadium is perhaps the largest football stadium in Pakistan with respect to capacity, easily accommodating around 40,000 people. In 2005, the city hosted the SAFF Championship at this ground, as well as the Geo Super Football League 2007, which attracted capacity crowds during the games.The popularity of golf is also gradually increasing among the masses and many clubs in Karachi like Dreamworld Resort, Hotel & Golf Club, Arabian Sea Country Club, DA Country & Golf Club are providing finest golf facilities to the citizens of Karachi. The city has facilities for hockey (the Hockey Club of Pakistan, UBL Hockey Ground), boxing (KPT Sports Complex), Squash (sport) (Jahangir Khan Squash Complex) and Polo. Marinas and boating clubs add to the diverse sporting activities in Karachi.
|Karachi Dolphins||Twenty-20 Cup||Cricket||National Stadium||2004|
|Karachi Dolphins||Twenty-20 Cup||Cricket||National Stadium||2004|
|Karachi Zebras||Twenty-20 Cup||Cricket||National Stadium||2004|
|Karachi Energy||SFL||Football||Peoples Football Stadium||2007|
|Karachi HBL FC||PPL||Football||Peoples Football Stadium||1975|
The population and demographic distribution in Karachi has undergone numerous changes over the past 150 years. Non-governmental and international sources report that Karachi’s current population is estimated to be 20 million a huge increase over its population in 1947 (400,000). The city’s population is currently growing at about 5% per year (mainly on account of rural-urban internal migration), including an estimated 45,000 migrant workers coming to the city every month from different parts of Pakistan. Karachi is the one of the largest mega cities in the world.
Before independence of Pakistan, Karachi had large communities of Muslims, Pashtuns, Muhajirs, Punjabis, Parsis, Jews, Hindus, Christians, Balochis, Gujaratis, and Sindhis. After independence of Pakistan, Muslim refugees settled in Karachi. Likewise, a large number of Hindus left the city for India. Predominantly Urdu speaking, known as Muhajirs formed the dominant ethnic group in Karachi. Muhajirs originated from different parts of India and brought with them their local cultures and cuisines, thus further adding to the already diverse mix of people that earlier inhabited Karachi. Currently, these older groups of people and continuing migration from different parts of Pakistan have contributed to a rich and diverse mix of people that live in Karachi. This has given the city a very metropolitan character, and has earned it the title as the Melting Pot of Pakistan.
|Year||YEAR Urban Population|
Currently Karachi population is believed to between 14 and 15 millions. The linguistic distribution of the city in 1998 census is: Urdu speaking 48.52%; Punjabi 13.94%; Sindhi 7.22%; Pashto 11.42%; Balochi4.34%; Seraiki2.11%; others 12.4%. The others include Gujarati, Dawoodi Bohra, Memon, Brahui, Makrani, Khowar, Burushaski, Arabic, Persian and Bengali. The religious breakup of the city is as follows: Muslim 96.49%; Christian 2.35%; Hindu0.83%; Qadiani 0.17%; others 0.13%. The others include Parsi, Jews and Buddhist.
Karachi is one of the most literate cities in Pakistan, with the highest literacy rate along with a gross enrollment ratio of 111%, the highest in Sindh.
Education in Karachi is divided into five levels: primary (grades one through five); middle (grades six through eight); high (grades nine and ten, leading to the Secondary School Certificate); intermediate (grades eleven and twelve, leading to a Higher Secondary School Certificate); and university programs leading to graduate and advanced degrees. Karachi has both public and private educational institutions. Most educational institutions are gender-based, from primary to university level.
Karachi Grammar School is the oldest school in Pakistan and has educated many Pakistani businessmen and politicians. The Narayan Jagannath High School in Karachi, which opened in 1855, was the first government school established in Sindh. Other well-known schools include the Hamdard Public School, Education Bay [EBay] school located in karachi (for higher education) Army Public School (C.O.D.),Karachi Public school, British Overseas School, L’ecole for Advanced Studies, Bay View Academey, the CAS School, Generations School, Karachi American School, Aga Khan Higher Secondary School, the Froebel Education Centre (FEC), The Paradise School and College, Grand Folk’s English School, Little Folks Secondary School, Habib Public School, Mama Parsi Girls Secondary School, B. V. S. Parsi High School, Civilizations Public School, The Oasys School, Avicenna School, The Lyceum School, Ladybird Grammar School, The City School, ABC Public School, Beaconhouse School System, The Educators schools, Sultan Mohamed Shah Aga Khan School, Shahwilayat Public School, Springfield School, St Patrick’s High School, St Paul’s English High School, St Joseph’s Convent School, St Jude’s High School, St Michael’s Convent School, Foundation Public School,Aisha Bawanay Academy, Karachi Gems School, St Peter’s High School and Chiniot Islamia School.
The University of Karachi, known as KU, is Pakistan’s largest university, with a student population of 24,000 and one of the largest faculties in the world. It is located next to the NED University of Engineering and Technology, the country’s oldest engineering institute. In the private sector, The National University of Computer and Emerging Sciences (NUCES-FAST), one of Pakistan’s top universities in computer education, Operates two campuses in Karachi. Sir Syed University of Engineering and Technology (SSUET) provides reputable training in biomedical engineering, civil engineering, electronics engineering, telecom engineering and computer engineering. Dawood College of Engineering and
Technology, which opened in 1962, offers degree programmes in electronic engineering, chemical engineering, industrial engineering, materials engineering and architecture. Karachi Institute of Economics & Technology (KIET) has two campuses in Karachi and has been growing rapidly since its inception in 1997. The Plastics Technology Center (PTC), located in Karachi’s Korangi Industrial Area, is at present Pakistan’s only educational institution providing training in the field of polymer engineering and plastics testing services. The Institute of Business Administration (IBA), founded in 1955, is the oldest business school outside of North America. The Shaheed Zulfiqar Ali Bhutto Institute of Science and Technology (SZABIST), founded in 1995 by Benazir Bhutto, is located in Karachi, with its other campuses in Islamabad, Larkana and Dubai. Pakistan Navy Engineering College (PNEC) is a part of the National University of Sciences and Technology (NUST), offering a wide range of engineering programs, including electrical engineering and mechanical engineering. Hamdard University is the largest private university in Pakistan with faculties including Eastern Medicine, Medical, Engineering, Pharmacy, and Law. It has got Asia’s second largest library called ‘BAIT UL HIKMA’. Jinnah University for Women is the first womenuniversity in Pakistan. Karachi is home of the head offices of the Institute of Chartered Accountants of Pakistan (ICAP) (established in 1961) and the Institute of Cost and Management Accountants of Pakistan (ICMAP). Among the many other institutions providing business education are the Institute of Business Management (IoBM), SZABIST, Iqra University and the Institute of Business and Technology (Biztek). Leading medical schools of Pakistan like the Dow University of Health Sciences and the Aga Khan University are situated in Karachi. PLANWEL is another innovative institution it is a CISCO Network Academy as well as iCBT center for ETS Prometric and Pearsons VUE. Bahria University also has a purpose-built campus in Karachi.Mohammad Ali Jinnah University (MAJU) is a private university in Pakistan. The main campus is in Karachi; the other campus is in Islamabad. The College of Accounting and Management Sciences (CAMS) also has three branches in the city. Sindh Muslim Govt. Science College located at Saddar Town is the eldest college in Karachi.
For religious education, the Jamia Uloom ul Islamia (one of the largest Islamic education centres of Asia), Jamia Binoria  and Darul ‘Uloom Karachi are among the Islamic schools in Karachi.
Some prominent institutions are as follows:
Karachi is referred as the financial capital of Pakistan; it accounts for a lion’s share of Pakistan’s revenue generation. It generates approximately 53.38% of the total collections of the Federal Board of Revenue, out of which 53.33% are customs duty and sales tax on imports. Karachi produces about 30 percent of value added in large scale manufacturing and 20% of the GDP of Pakistan. In February 2007, the World Bank identified Karachi as the most business-friendly city in Pakistan. In 2010, research by the global human resources company Mercer found Karachi to be the cheapest city in the world.
A substantial chunk of Sindh’s GDP is attributed to Karachi (the GDP of Sindh as a percentage of Pakistan’s total GDP has traditionally hovered around 29%/30%). Karachi’s GDP is around 20% of the total GDP of Pakistan. A PricewaterhouseCoopers study released in 2009, which surveyed the 2008 GDP of the top cities in the world, calculated Karachi’s GDP (PPP) to be $78 billion (projected to be $193 billion in 2025 at a growth rate of 5.5%). It confirmed Karachi’s status as Pakistan’s largest economy, well ahead of the next two biggest cities Lahore and Faisalabad, which had a reported GDP (PPP) in 2008 of $40 billion and $14 billion, respectively. Karachi’s high GDP is based on its large industrial base, with a high dependency also on the financial services sector. Textiles, cement, steel, heavy machinery, chemicals, food, banking and insurance are the major industrial sectors contributing to Karachi’s GDP.
In line with its status as a major port and the country’s largest metropolis, it accounts for a lion’s share of Pakistan’s revenue generation. According to the Pakistan Federal Board of Revenue’s 2006-2007 year book tax and customs units in Karachi was responsible for 46.75% of direct taxes, 33.65% of federal excise tax, and 23.38% of domestic sales tax. Karachi also accounts for 75.14% of customs duty and 79% of sales tax on imports. Therefore, Karachi collects a significant 53.38% of the total collections of the Federal Board of Revenue, out of which 53.33% are customs duty and sales tax on imports. Revenue collected from Karachi includes revenue from some other areas since the Large Tax Unit (LTU) Karachi and Regional Tax Offices (RTOs) Karachi, Hyderabad, Sukkur and Quetta cover the entire province of Sindh and Baluchistan. Karachi’s indigenous contribution to national revenue is 25%.
I. I. Chundrigar Road (formerly McLeod Road) remains the historical commercial hub of Karachi and is its main CBD. However over the years, notable business and trade activity has appeared in other conurbations of the city, including the Shahrah-e-Faisal thoroughfare, MT Khan Road, Mai Kolachi road and the Clifton and Defense areas of the city.
The recent trend of ICT (information and communications technology), electronic media and call centers has become a significant part of Karachi business hierarchy. Call centers for foreign companies have been targeted as a significant area of growth, with the government making efforts to reduce taxes by as much as 80 percent in order to gain foreign investments in the IT sector.
The city has also firmly established itself as the electronic media capital of the country; most of Pakistan’s media television channels are headquartered here, including CNBC Pakistan, Dawn News, TV One, Indus Media Group, ARY Digital, AAJ TV, KTN NEWS, KTN, KASHISH TV and Geo TV. They generate huge revenues for the city in advertising and provide jobs and entertainment. As a sign of the growing strength of the electronic media sector, GEO TV is planning to start an additional 10 channels and for this purpose is setting up a 50-acre (200,000 m2) studio in the city.
Karachi Stock Exchange is Pakistan’s largest and oldest stock exchange, with many Pakistani as well as overseas listings. In 2002 it was declared the “Best Performing Stock Market of the World for the year 2002”.
KSE is well into its fourth year of being one of the Best Performing Markets of the world as declared by the international magazine Business Week. Similarly, the US newspaper USA Today termed Karachi Stock Exchange as one of the best performing bourses in the world.
Further information: Karachi Cotton Exchange and National Commodity Exchange Limited.
There are many cottage industries in the city as well. Karachi is also known as software outsourcing hub of Pakistan. It has a rapidly flourishing ‘Free Zone’ with an annual growth rate of nearly 6.5 percent. An expo center has also been set up in Karachi, which hosts many regional and international exhibitions including the IDEAS Defense Exhibition. Dozens of new manufacturing units are also being built near the Pakistan Steel Mill. Farm businesses line the Super Highway route. The Sindh Industrial Trading Estate (SITE) in Manghopir is the biggest industrial area of Pakistan. Other industrial zones are located in Landhi, Korangi, FB Area, North Karachi and Port Qasim.
Karachi is also home of major automobile manufacturing companies. Toyota is in the process of increasing production capacity to over 120,000 units per annum. Suzuki Motor Company is also located in Karachi. The manufacturing plant located in Bin Qasim has a production capacity of 150,000 vehicles per year. Among others, Millat Tractors, Daihatsu, Hino Pak Buses and Trucks manufacturing plants are also located in Karachi. The now-defunct Adam Motor Company was formerly located in the city.
Work is being done to promote the development of higher value added textile products, most notably by Ayesha Tammy Haq, an attorney who also has a television talk show. She set up Pakistan Fashion Week, a showcase for Pakistan’s emerging fashion industry.
Karachi is the hub for Pakistan’s banking and financial services sector and is home to Pakistan’s Central Bank, the State Bank of Pakistan.
Nearly all banks that operate in Pakistan have their corporate headquarters in the city. These include:
Despite the growth and development of transport infrastructure elsewhere in the country, Karachi remains the country’s transport hub. The city’s two ports, Port of Karachi (Pakistan’s largest) and Port Qasim, are central to nearly all shipping in Pakistan. The airport of Karachi, Jinnah International Airport (also known as Quaid-e-Azam International Airport) is the largest and busiest airport in Pakistan and handles 6 million passengers a year. The airport also receives the largest number of foreign airlines; a total of 27 airlines fly to Jinnah International, predominantly from the Middle East and South East Asia. All of Pakistan’s airlines use Karachi as their primary hub, including Pakistan International Airlines, Aero Asia International, Airblue and Shaheen Air International.
Karachi is the biggest fishery hub in Pakistan. Fisheries play an important role in Karachi’s economy. They provide employment to about 300,000 fishermen directly. In addition, another 400,000 people are employed in ancillary industries. It is also a major source of export earnings. The Karachi Fish Harbor and Korangi Fish Harbor are two major fish harbors in Karachi.
There are several ethnic groups in Karachi including Muhajirs (refugees from India), Punjabis, Sindhis, Kashmiris, Seraikis, Pashtuns, Balochis, Memons, Bohras, Ismailis, and others. Due to the conflicts in Afghanistan since 1979, a steady stream of Afghan Refugees has also taken up residence in and around Karachi. They number about 50,000 as of 2009 and consist mainly of ethnic Pashtuns, followed by Tajiks and others. There are also hundreds of thousands of Arabs, Iranians, Turkish, Filipinos, Muslim Arakani refugees (from Rakhine tate in Myanmar), Bosnians,Albanians, Polish, Lebaneses, Armenians, Goan, Bengalis and Africans immigrants who are also settled in Karachi. Most refugee minorities of the city live in poor neighborhoods.
According to a 1998 census of Pakistan, the religious breakdown of the city is as follows: Shia and Sunni Muslim (96.45%), Christian (2.42%), Hindu (0.86%), Ahmadi (0.17%) and other 0.10%). Other religious groups include Parsis, Sikhs, Bahai, Jews and Buddhists. Of the Muslims, approximately 65% are Sunnis and 31.45% are Shias.
The politics of Karachi takes place at the municipal, provincial and federal levels of the government. Karachi is a multiethnic, multilingual, multicultural and multireligious metropolitan city. The demographics of Karachi are important as most politics in Karachi is driven by ethnic politics. Mr. Mohammad Hussain Sayed is the current administrator and head of the city’s government.
At a national level, Karachi is also the capital of the province of Sindh, hosting the Provincial Assembly of Sindh and where the political seat of the Government of Sindh is centered.
The 2001 Local Government Ordinance provided for the devolution of government to district administrations. Naimatullah Khan was elected as the first Nazim (mayor) of Karachi in 2001 after the devolution plan. Syed Mustafa Kamal was elected as the second Nazim of Karachi in 2005.
The Muttahida Qaumi Movement (MQM) dominates the municipal political scene in Karachi. The MQM had the most elected members in the City District Government of Karachi (CDGK) elections in 2005.
During the 2008 Pakistani general election, most of the seats in Karachi were won by the secular MQM followed by the Pakistan Peoples Party (PPP). The results showed and finalized a tilt in the favor of MQM from the city in terms of both provincial and federal politics.
The demographics of Karachi are important as most politics in Karachi is driven and influenced by ethnic affiliation. The success of the MQM has always been patronized by the fact that city’s population is dominated by the Muhajir people who remain loyal to the party, which was originally created and led by Altaf Hussain as a means to fight for the community’s rights. Today, the party’s following and fan base has extended to Karachi’s religious minorities and interior Sindh sindhi population as well as punjabi, baluchi, siraeki, pashtuns, kashmiri’s who lived in Karachi and other parts of Sindh. Number of Pashtuns also live in the city, most of them belong to the Khyber-Pakhtunkhwa province and started to migrate to Karachi in the early 1960s during the Ayub Khan period and were employed as laborers in the city’s widespread construction business. Some of them, including those of Afghan origin, identify with more puritanical and conservative traditions and have been known supporters of ultra-conservative groups. Those who are secular support the left-wing Awami National Party (ANP). Simultaneously, some of the Punjabi community supports moderate conservative parties such as the Pakistan Muslim League (N) and the Punjabi Pakhtun Ittehad (PPI)
National Assembly. (NA) 20
Provincial Assembly. (PS) 42
The first form of government was a conservancy board established in 1846 to control the spread of cholera in the city. The board became a municipal commission in 1852 and a municipal committee the following year. The City of Karachi Municipal Act of 1933 transformed the city administration into a municipal corporation with a mayor, a deputy mayor and 57 councilors. In 1948, the Federal Capital Territory of Pakistan was created; comprising approximately 2,103 km2 (812 sq mi) of Karachi and surrounding areas, but this was merged into the province of West Pakistan in 1961. However, the municipal corporation remained in existence and in 1976 became a metropolitan corporation, followed by the creation of zonal municipal committees, which lasted until 1994. Two years later the metropolitan area was divided into five districts, each with a municipal corporation.
In 2001, five districts of Karachi were merged to form the city district of Karachi. It was structured as a three-tier federation, with the two lower tiers composed of 18 towns and 178 union councils, with each tier focused on elected councils with some common members to provide “vertical linkage” within the federation. Each union council comprised thirteen members elected from specified electorates: four men and two women elected directly by the general population; two men and two women elected by peasants and workers; one member for minority communities; two members are elected jointly as the union mayor (nazim) and deputy union mayor (naib nazim). Each town council was comprised all of the deputy union 29
mayors in the town as well as elected representatives for women, peasants and workers, and minorities. The district council was comprised all of the union mayors in the district as well as elected representatives for women, peasants and workers, and minorities. Each council was also included up to three council secretaries and a number of other civil servants. Naimatullah Khan was the first Nazim of Karachi and Shafiq-Ur-Rehman Paracha was the first district coordination officer (DCO) of Karachi, Paracha even served as the last Commissioner of Karachi. Syed Mustafa Kamal was elected City Nazim of Karachi to succeed Naimatullah Khan in 2005 elections, and Nasreen Jalil was elected as the City Naib Nazim.
Again in 2011, City District Government of Karachi has been de-merged into its five original constituent districts namely Karachi East, Karachi West, Karachi Central, Karachi South and District Malir. These five districts form the Karachi Division now. City dministrator is Muhammad Hussain Syed and Municipal Commissioner of Karachi is Matanat Ali Khan. There are also six military cantonments which are administered by the Pakistan Army.
The Supreme Court: is the apex court in Pakistan’s judicial hierarchy, the final arbiter of legal and constitutional disputes. The Supreme Court is made up of 17 permanent judges, and has a permanent seat in Islamabad. Cases are also heard in its Branch Registries in the provincial capitals of Lahore, Peshawar, Quetta and Karachi. It has a number of de jure powers which are outlined in the Constitution, including appellate and constitutional jurisdiction, and suo moto power to try Human Rights matters. Through several periods of military rule and constitutional suspensions, the court has also established itself as a de facto check on military power. The Supreme Court Judges are supervised by the Supreme Judicial Council, which may hear complaints brought against any of them.
The Federal Shariat Court of Pakistan was established by presidential order in 1980 with the intent to scrutinize all laws in the country that are against Islamic values. This court has a remit to examine any law that may be repugnant to the “injunctions of Islam, as laid down in the Holy Quran and the Sunnah.” If a law is found to be ‘repugnant’, the Court is to provide notice to the level of government concerned specifying the reasons for its decision. The court also has jurisdiction to examine any decisions of any criminal court relating to the application of Islamic (hudud) penalties. The Supreme Court also has a Shariat Appellate Bench empowered to review the decisions of the Federal Shariat Court. The Federal Shariat Court of Pakistan consists of 8 Muslim judges including the Chief Justice. These Judges are appointed by the President of Pakistan, after decision is made by the Judicial Committee consisting the Chief Justice of
Pakistan (Federal Shariat Court) and the Chief Justice of Pakistan. They choose from amongst the serving or retired judges of the Supreme Court or a High Court or from amongst persons possessing the qualifications of judges of a High Court. Presently Justice Agha Rafiq Ahmed Khan is the Chief Justice of FSC.
Of the 8 judges, 3 are required to be Islamic Scholars/Ulema who are well versed in Islamic law. The judges hold office for a period of 3 years, which may eventually be extended by the President.
The FSC, on its own motion or through petition by a citizen or a government (federal or provincial), has the power to examine and determine as to whether or not a certain provision of law is repugnant to the injunctions of Islam. Appeal against its decisions lie to the Shariat Appellate Bench of the Supreme Court, consisting of 3 Muslim judges of the Supreme Court and 2 Ulema, appointed by the President. If a certain provision of law is declared to be repugnant to the injunctions of Islam, the government is required to take necessary steps to amend the law so as to bring it in conformity with the injunctions of Islam.
The court also exercises revisional jurisdiction over the criminal courts, deciding Hudood cases. The decisions of the court are binding on the High Courts as well as subordinate judiciary. The court appoints its own staff and frames its own rules of procedure.
There is one High Court in each Province, and one in the federal capital, Islamabad, including:
The High Courts are the appellate courts for all civil and criminal cases in each respective province. The High Courts’ general authority is laid out in the Constitution of Pakistan, 1956, Article 170, which reads:
“Notwithstanding anything contained in Article 22, each High Court shall have power throughout the territories in relation to which it exercise jurisdiction, to issue to any person or authority, including in appropriate cases any Government directions, orders or writs, including writs in the nature of habeas corpus, mandamus, prohibition, quo warranto and certiorari, for the enforcement of any of the rights conferred by Part II and for any other purpose.”
District courts exist in every district of each province, and have civil and criminal jurisdiction. In each District Headquarters, there are numerous Additional District & Session Judges who usually preside the courts. District & Sessions Judge has executive and judicial power all over the district under his jurisdiction. The Sessions court is also a trial court for heinous offences such as Murder, Rape (Zina), Haraba offences (armed robbery where specific amount of gold and cash is involved), and is also appellate court for summary conviction offences and civil suits of lesser value. Each Town and city now has a court of Additional District & Sessions judge, which possess the equal authority over, under its jurisdiction. When hearing criminal cases, it is called the Sessions Court, and when it hears civil cases, the District Court. Executive matters are brought before the relevant District & Sessions Judge.
The High Court of each province has appellate jurisdiction over the lower courts.
The Supreme Court has exclusive jurisdiction over disputes between and among provincial governments, and appellate jurisdiction over High Court decisions.
Court usually starts early in the morning (at 08:00), with the hearing of pre-arrest bail applications, followed by post-arrest bail applications and civil appeals from the orders of the Judicial Magistrates’ Courts and civil Judges. Decisions are usually announced later in the day, once the Judge has had time to peruse the case files after the hearings. The rest of the day is allocated for the recording of the Evidence in session’s cases such as in offences murder, rape and robbery etc. Cases are usually allotted by administrative orders of District and Sessions Judges. The Court of the District & Sessions Judge usually hears administrative applications against lower courts orders.
In every town and city, there are numerous Civil and Judicial Magistrates’ Courts. A Magistrate with the powers of section 30 of Criminal Procedure Code (Cr.P.C.) has the jurisdiction to hear all criminal matters other than those which carry the death penalty (such as attempted murder, dacoity, robbery, extortion, etc.), but may only pass a sentence of up to seven years’ imprisonment. If the court thinks accused deserves more punishment than seven years in jail, then it has to refer the matter to a higher court, with its recommendations to that effect. Every Magistrate’s Court is allocated a local jurisdiction, usually encompassing one or more Police Stations in the area. Trial of all non bail able offences, including police remand notices, accused discharges, arrest and search warrants, and bail applications, are heard and decided by Magistrate Courts. Most Judicial Magistrates may hear civil suits as well. If they do so, they are usually called a Civil Judge Cum Judicial Magistrate.
There are numerous special tribunals such as;
Almost all judges of above mentioned courts and tribunals except last two, are of District & sessions Judges or of having same qualifications.
The West Pakistan Family Courts Act 1964 governs the jurisdiction of Family Courts. These courts have exclusive jurisdiction over matters relating to personal status. Appeals from the Family Courts lie with the High Court only. Every town and city has court of family judge. In some areas, where it is only Family Court but in most areas Civil Judge Courts have been granted the powers of Family Court Judges.
Section 4 of the JJSO authorizes the Provincial Government to establish one or more juvenile courts for any local area within its jurisdiction, in consultation with the Chief Justice of the high court. Ten years have passed, and not a single such court has been established; and instead the High Courts have been conferring status of the juvenile courts on the existing courts. The High Courts cannot be doing this on their own, and must be instructed by the provincial governments to do so. In this era of independent judiciary, the High Courts should stand up against the governments on this issue and refuse to confer powers on the already over-burdened courts and instead should insist upon establishing exclusive juvenile courts.
Section 6 of the JJSO prescribes special procedure for the juvenile courts which involves issues like not ordinarily taking up any other case on a day when the case of a child accused is fixed for evidence on such day; attendance of only specified persons in the court; and dispensing with the attendance of the child in the trial.
Supreme Court of Pakistan
Prior to 18th Constitutional Amendments, appointments to the Supreme Court of Pakistan were made by the President of Pakistan, on the recommendation of the Chief Justice of the Supreme Court. This system bred many allegations of favoritism. Many judges who were appointed were relatives of other Judges or Government officials. However, following the Supreme Court’s judgment in the Al-Jehad Trust case, the government’s role in judicial appointments was curtailed. Under the terms of this judgment, the Government and the President’s office were bound to act on the recommendations of the Chief Justice of Pakistan. After the 18th Constitutional Amendment in May 2010, a new Judicial Commission and Parliamentary committee is established for appointments. The Judicial Commission consists of the Chief Justice of Pakistan, four senior judges of the Supreme Court, the Attorney General of Pakistan, and the Federal Justice Minister of Pakistan, one member from Pakistan Bar Council. A Parliamentary Committee oversees the recommendations of the Judicial Commission. At the Commission’s first meeting, the Chief Justice and the Registrar of the Supreme Court of Pakistan are appointed Chairman and Secretary of the Judicial Commission, respectively.
In Appointments to the High Courts, the same procedure as in Supreme Courts appointments is adopted Prior to 18th Constitutional Amendment, High Court appointments suffered much the same criticisms as those to the Supreme Court. Future appointments will be made in the same manner as those to the Supreme Court.
Additional District & Sessions Judges are appointed by the Provincial High Courts, from a pool of Lawyers and subordinate judges. To be eligible for appointment, Lawyers must have ten years’ experience as an advocate with good standing in the respective jurisdiction. They must also pass an examination conducted by the High Courts. Subordinate judges are promoted from senior civil judges on a seniority basis.
Civil Judge Cum Judicial Magistrates are also appointed by the Provincial High Courts, on the recommendation of provincial Public Service Commissions. These Commissions hold open competitive exams annually, which are advertised in national newspapers. The basic qualifications required are an LL.B from any recognized university, and three years’ experience as an advocate in the jurisdiction in question. The exams include various compulsory papers. For example, the Punjab Public Service Commission sets compulsory papers on English Language & Essay, Urdu Language & Essay, Islamic Studies, Pakistan Studies, General Knowledge (objective test), Criminal Law, Civil Law 1 & 2, and General Law. All candidates who pass the examinations are given a psychological test. Those who pass both these stages are interviewed by members of Service Commissions, and recommendations are made to the respective High Courts for appointments.